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Good Laboratory Practices

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Good Laboratory Practices. Lori Gladney. Izabella Osakwe. Endia Ford. GLP: GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE ... GLP is a formal regulation that was created by the FDA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Good Laboratory Practices


1
Good Laboratory Practices
  • Lori Gladney
  • Izabella Osakwe
  • Endia Ford

2
GLP GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE
  • GLP is an FDA regulation.
  • Definition GLP embodies a set of principles that
    provides a framework within which laboratory
    studies are planned performed, monitored,
    reported and archived.
  • GLP is sometimes confused with the standards of
    laboratory safety like wearing safety goggles.

3
HISTORY
  • GLP is a formal regulation that was created by
    the FDA (United states food and drug
    administration) in 1978.
  • Although GLP originated in the United States , it
    had a world wide impact.
  • Non-US companies that wanted to do business with
    the United states or register their pharmacies in
    the United States had to comply with the United
    States GLP regulations.
  • They eventually started making GLP regulations in
    their home countries.
  • In 1981 an organization named OECD (organization
    for economic co-operation and development )
    produced GLP principles that are international
    standard.

4
WHY WAS GLP CREATED?
  • In the early 70s FDA became aware of cases of
    poor laboratory practice all over the United
    States.
  • FDA decided to do an in-depth investigation on 40
    toxicology labs.
  • They discovered a lot fraudulent activities and a
    lot of poor lab practices.
  • Examples of some of these poor lab practices
    found were
  • Equipment not been calibrated to standard form ,
    therefore giving wrong measurements.
  • Incorrect/inaccurate accounts of the actual lab
    study
  • Inadequate test systems

5
FAMOUS EXAMPLE
  • One of the labs that went under such an
    investigation made headline news.
  • The name of the Lab was Industrial Bio Test. This
    was a big lab that ran tests for big companies
    such as Procter and Gamble.
  • It was discovered that mice that they had used to
    test cosmetics such as lotion and deodorants had
    developed cancer and died.
  • Industrial Bio Test lab threw the dead mice and
    covered results deeming the products good for
    human consumption.
  • Those involved in production, distribution and
    sales for the lab eventually served jail time.

6
OBJECTIVES OF GLP
  • GLP makes sure that the data submitted are a true
    reflection of the results that are obtained
    during the study.
  • GLP also makes sure that data is traceable.
  • Promotes international acceptance of tests.

7
MISSION OF GLP
  • Test systems
  • Archiving of records and materials.
  • Apparatus, material and reagent facilities.
  • Quality assurance programs.
  • Performance of the study.
  • Reporting of study results.
  • Standard operating procedures (SOP)
  • Personnel and test facility organization

8
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
  • Written procedures for a laboratories program.
  • They define how to carry out protocol-specified
    activities.
  • Most often written in a chronological listing of
    action steps.
  • They are written to explain how the procedures
    are suppose to work

9
SOP
  • Routine inspection, cleaning, maintenance,
    testing and calibration.
  • Actions to be taken in response to equipment
    failure.
  • Analytical methods
  • Definition of raw data
  • Keeping records, reporting, storage, mixing, and
    retrieval of data

10
Statistical Procedures for Data Evaluation
  • Statistical procedures are not simply chosen from
    a text book
  • Practitioners in a particular field may adopt
    certain standards which are deemed acceptable
    within that field.
  • Regulatory agencies often describe acceptable
    statistical procedures.

11
Instrumentation Validation
  • This is a process necessary for any analytical
    laboratory.
  • Data produced by faulty instruments may give
    the appearance of valid data.
  • The frequency for calibration, re-validation and
    testing depends on the instrument and extent of
    its use in the laboratory.
  • Whenever an instruments performance is outside
    the control limits reports must be discontinued

12
Instrument Validation (cont)
  • Equipment records should include
  • Name of the equipment and manufacturer
  • Model or type for identification
  • Serial number
  • Date equipment was received in the laboratory
  • Copy of manufacturers operating instruction (s)

13
Reagent/ Materials Certification
  • This policy is to assure that reagents used are
    specified in the standard operating procedure.
  • Purchasing and testing should be handled by a
    quality assurance program.

14
Reagents and Solutions cont
  • Requirements
  • Reagents and solutions shall be labeled
  • Deteriorated or outdated reagents and solutions
    shall not be used
  • Include Date opened
  • Stored under ambient temperature
  • Expiration date

15
Analyst Certification
  • Some acceptable proof of satisfactory training
    and/or competence with specific laboratory
    procedures must be established for each analyst.
  • Qualification can come from education, experience
    or additional trainings, but it should be
    documented
  • Sufficient people
  • Requirements of certification vary

16
Laboratory Certification
  • Normally done by an external agency
  • Evaluation is concerned with issues such as
  • Adequate space
  • Ventilation
  • Storage
  • Hygiene

17
Specimen/Sample Tracking
  • Vary among laboratories
  • Must maintain the unmistakable connection between
    a set of analytical data and the specimen and/or
    samples from which they were obtained.
  • Original source of specimen/sample (s) must be
    recorded and unmistakably connected with the set
    of analytical data.

18
Documentation and Maintenance of Records
  • Maintenance of all records provide documentation
    which may be required in the event of legal
    challenges due to repercussions of decisions
    based on the original analytical results.
  • General guidelines followed in regulated
    laboratories is to maintain records for at least
    five years
  • Length of time over which laboratory records
    should be maintained will vary with the situation

19
Important questions to be answered for any
analytical instrument
  • What is the equipment being used for?
  • Is the instrument within specification and is the
    documentation to prove this available?
  • If the instrument is not within specifications,
    how much does it deviate by?
  • If the instrument is not within specifications
    what action has been taken to overcome the
    defect?
  • Can the standards used to test and calibrate the
    instrument be traced back to national standards?

20
What happens if a workplace does not comply with
federal Good Laboratory Practice standards?
21
Disqualification of a Facility
  • Before a workplace can experience the
    consequences of noncompliance, an explanation of
    disqualification is needed
  • The FDA states the purpose of disqualification as
    the exclusion of a testing facility from
    completing laboratory studies or starting any new
    studies due to not following the standards of
    compliance set by the Good Laboratory Practice
    manual

22
Possible Violations
  • Falsifying information for permit, registration
    or any required records
  • Falsifying information related to testing
    protocols, ingredients, observations, data
    equipment, ect.
  • Failure to prepare, retain, or submit written
    records required by law

23
Grounds for Disqualification
  • The testing facility failed to comply with one or
    more regulations implemented by the GLP manual
  • The failure to comply led to adverse outcomes in
    the data in other words, it affected the
    validity of the study
  • Warnings or rejection of previous studies have
    not been adequate to improve the facilitys
    compliance

24
Consequences of Noncompliance
  • The FDA states the following consequences of
    noncompliance
  • The commissioner will send a written proposal of
    disqualification to the testing facility
  • A regulatory hearing on the disqualification will
    be scheduled
  • If the commissioner finds that after the hearing,
    the facility has complied, then a written
    statement with an explanation of termination of
    disqualification will be sent to the facility
  • Thus, if it can be shown that such
    disqualifications did not affect the integrity
    and outcome of the study itself, or did not occur
    at all, then the study may be reinstated at the
    will of the commissioner

25
Upon Disqualification
  • If the commissioner finds that the facility was
    noncompliant on any of the grounds after the
    hearing, then a final order of noncompliance will
    be sent to the facility with explanations
  • If a testing facility has been disqualified, any
    studies done before of after the disqualification
    will need to be determined as essential to a
    decision (acceptable or not)
  • If the study is determined unacceptable, then the
    facility itself may need to show that the study
    was not affected by the noncompliance that led to
    the disqualification
  • Once finally disqualified, the facility may not
    receive or be considered for a research or
    marketing permit and the study is rejected.

26
Upon Disqualification
  • The commissioner may notify the public and all
    interested persons, including other federal
    agencies the facility may have contacted
  • The FDA may ask the other agencies to consider
    whether to support the facility or not under the
    disqualification
  • Civil or criminal proceedings may occur at the
    discretion of the commissioner
  • Fines of up to 50,000 if one knowingly commits
    crime and/or 1 year imprisonment for
    registration applicants and producers
  • Fines up to 5,000 all others civil penalty
    after failing to improve after a minor violation
    warning was issued only those involved in
    testing will be given civil penalties
  • Those involved in the distribution or sales will
    be assessed more heavy penalties, such as
    criminal penalties

27
Upon Disqualification
  • The FDA may turn it over to the federal, state or
    local law enforcement
  • The facilitys sponsor may terminate or suspend
    the facility from doing any non- clinical study
    for a permit
  • The sponsor is required to notify the FDA in
    writing within 15 working days that the facility
    is to be suspended or terminated and why

28
Reinstatement of a Disqualified Facility
  • The testing facility may be reinstated as
    acceptable non-clinical study to be turned into
    the FDA if the commissioner can be certain that
    future studies will be conducted in compliance
    with the Good Laboratory Practice standards and
    that any current studies integrity have not been
    severely harmed by the disqualification
  • The disqualified facility will be required to put
    in writing to the commissioner reasons why it
    should be reinstated and any actions the facility
    will take or have taken to assure any
    disqualification problems will not happen again

29
Reinstatement of a Disqualified Facility
  • The commissioner will inspect the facility and
    determine if it shall be reinstated
  • If it is reinstated, the commissioner is required
    to notify all persons that were notified of the
    disqualification including the facility itself

30
References
  • http//www.sjsu.edu/faculty/chem55/55glpout.htm
  • http//www.labcompliance.com/tutorial/glp/default.
    aspx?smd_a
  • UGA Office of the Vice President for Research
  • Wikipedia
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