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BSA Merit Badge Program;

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BSA Merit Badge Program – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BSA Merit Badge Program;


1
BSA Merit Badge Program PUBLIC HEALTH
A historic public health event in the 1800s was
stopping disease outbreak by removing the water
pump handle.
Enter Your Contact Information Here
2
Boy Scout Public Health Merit Badge
  • This presentation developed by a Scout Leader
    from the Erie County Department of Health.
  • This presentation focuses on communicable/
    infectious diseases and diseases that may be
    contracted while in the outdoors.
  • You may want to include slides about chronic
    disease and health behaviors, which are also
    important topics in public health.
  • Please visit the New York State Department of
    Health website for more information.

3
Chronic Diseases
  • These are common chronic diseases
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Heart Disease
  • Cancer
  • Stroke

4
Health Behaviors
  • Diet and nutrition
  • Physical Activity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption

5
Enter the name of your facility (LHD, etc.) here.
  • Provide an outline of the agenda for the day
    here.
  • Include general topics to be covered.

6
Name
IS YOUR MB CARD PROPERLY COMPLETED?
Address
City
X

Troop
District
Council
Date
Unit Leaders Sig.
Name
Name
PUBLIC HEALTH
Badge Leaders Name
X

Address
PUBLIC HEALTH
Address
PUBLIC HEALTH
Telephone Number
Unit Leaders Sig.
7
What is PUBLIC HEALTH?
The science and art of preventing disease,
prolonging life and promoting health through the
organized efforts and informed choices of
society, organizations, public and private,
communities and individuals." Charles-Edward
Amory Winslow -1920
8
CORE FUNTIONS OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Source Center for Disease Control and Prevention
www.cdc.gov
9
HOW CAN DISEASESBE SPREAD?
10
WHAT IS A VECTOR ?
A vector is an organism that does not cause
disease itself but that transmits infection by
conveying pathogens from one host to another,
serving as a route of transmission.
11
CONTROLLING DISEASE IN YOUR HOME, COMMUNITY AND
AT CAMP
  • In our homes and community
  • Proper trash storage and disposal
  • Prompt disposal of pet feces
  • Eliminate standing water (old tires,
    poor-draining gutters, natural puddles and pools,
    etc.)
  • Remove debris and weed overgrowth (wood or rock
    piles, construction debris, etc.)
  • Make sure your home or business is well
    maintained, with no opening for rodents to get
    inside
  • At camp
  • Keep your tent and campsite clean (not Boy
    clean, Mom clean!)
  • Proper food storage (NOT IN YOUR TENT!)
  • Proper trash storage and disposal
  • Practice LEAVE NO TRACE
  • Leave cabin doors and windows closed to avoid
    mosquitoes and unwanted animals
  • Check body and clothing for ticks

12
LETS TALK A BIT MORE ABOUT CAMP
mom CLEAN
boy CLEAN
13
LETS TALK A BIT MORE ABOUT CAMP
Bites from rabid raccoons require 5 visits to the
doctor on days 0,3,7,14 and 28 after the bite for
injections to prevent death from rabies.
14
One last observation about camp cleanliness
Dirty snow outside of a BSA camp.
15
LABORATORY ACTIVITY 1Investigation of Germ
Distribution due to Fomite Exposure
WHO GOT DA COOTIES?
You may want to conduct an activity here. When
this presentation was originally given, the badge
leader used Glow-Germ" powder to demonstrate
germ transmission person-to-person and/or
fomite-to-person. Ideas for other activities can
be found on the NYSDOH Public Health Works!
Website http//www.health.state.ny.us/prevention/
public_health_works/
16
E. coli
Escherichia coli
Is it dangerous?
E. coli is one of the most common bacteria found
in human and animal digestive systems. It
benefits to us include the production of vitamin
K2 (important to the body for helping blood to
clot) and by preventing other dangerous germs to
grow in our guts.
Gram negative bacillus
However, some varieties, or STRAINS, are bad.
They have developed the ability to produce toxins
that can make us very ill or even cause death.
Occasionally during butchering or other food
preparation processes our food becomes
contaminated with the bad E. coli. If the food
is not cooked or not cooked properly, we consume
the bad germs and they grow inside our digestive
tracts and cause illness. Can also be acquired by
swallowing contaminated swimming water (lakes or
pools).
17
Pathogenic E. coli
BACTERIA
Type or Form?
NONE
Possible vectors?
  • USE CARE WHEN PREPARING FOODS.
  • KEEP MEATS AWAY FROM FOODS THAT WONT BE COOKED.
  • COOK GROUND OR TENDERIZED MEATS TO AN INTERNAL
  • TEMPERATURE OF 160oF.

Methods of prevention?
  • SUPPORTIVE CARE, INCLUDING HYDRATION.
  • ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTI-DIARRHEALS
  • SHOULD NOT BE USED AS THEY INCREASE
  • THE RISK OF COMPLICATIONS
  • (Kidney failure in 5 - 10 of cases ).

Available treatments?
18
Tetanus
Clostridium tetani
Gram positive bacillus
  • Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is caused by a
    toxin
  • (tetanospasmin) produced by the bacteria
    Clostridium tetani.
  • C. tetani is a common environmental bacteria
    found in soil,
  • especially current or former farm lands.
  • The disease was first described by the Greek
    physician
  • Hippocrates in the fifth century BC.
  • Characteristic symptoms include severe muscle
    pain and
  • stiffness, difficulty swallowing, muscle spasms
  • (strong enough to break bones)
  • Commonly associated with rusty nails, it is not
    the rust that causes tetanus, but the dirt and
    low oxygen environment of the rust that provides
    a place for the germs to hide. The rusty nails
    act as a FOMITE.
  • 10 - 20 of those infected die.

19
Tetanus
BACTERIA
Type or Form?
PUNCTURE WOUNDS FROM DIRTY OBJECTS (FOMITES)
Possible vectors?
  • CHILDHOOD VACCINATION SERIES AVAILABLE.
  • BOOSTER SHOTS EVERY 10 YEARS FOR ADULTS.
  • IF YOU SUFFER A DEEP PUNCTURE WOUND APPLY
  • APPROPRIATE FIRST-AID AND FOLLOW-UP WITH A
    DOCTOR.

Methods of prevention?
  • TETANUS BOOSTER SHOT.
  • TETANUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN.
  • ANTIBIOTICS.

Available treatments?
20
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The
virus replicates itself inside the human white
blood cells responsible for controlling our
immune systems. When the virus destroys enough
cells over time, our immune system fails.
Patients become very susceptible to
opportunistic infections
  • Spread person-to-person or by needles/surgical
    instruments when infected body fluids are present
  • (i.e. bloodborne pathogen)
  • Sexually transmitted
  • Use of dirty/contaminated needles
  • Mother to child During pregnancy, at birth,
  • and from
    breastfeeding.
  • Healthcare and Emergency Service Professionals

AIDS requires a lot of drugs to treat it.
What about Blood and organ donation/transplant?
21
AIDS
VIRUS
Type or Form?
NONE IDENTIFIED
Possible vectors?
  • SAFE SEX PRACTICES OR ABSTINENCE.
  • DONT USE ILLICIT DRUGS.
  • SUBSTANCE ABUSERS TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NEEDLE
  • EXCHANGE PROGRAMS.
  • WORKERS NEED TO WEAR personal protective
    equipment (PPE).
  • TESTING OF BLOOD/ORGANS BEFORE
    TRANSFUSION/TRANSPLANT.

Methods of prevention?
  • NO VACCINE, NO CURE.
  • ANTIVIRAL DRUGS CAN SLOW PROGRESS
  • OF DISEASE.
  • TREATMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.

Available treatments?
22
Encephalitis
ENCEPHALITIS
EN- What?
ENCEPHAL In the head (greek origin
enkephalos). -ITIS refering to an inflammation
of an organ or tissue.
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain
  • Inflammation is usually caused by infection or
  • an inappropriate auto-immune response to
    infection
  • The incidence is reported as 7.4 cases per
    100,000 people (based on US statistics)
  • Anyone can become ill with encephalitis, at any
    age
  • The inflammation can damage nerve cells
    resulting in acquired brain injury
  • Compared to other infectious diseases,
    encephalitis has a high death rate
  • ARBOVIRUSES Viruses transmitted by Arthropods
    (Mosquitoes Ticks)
  • West Nile Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis,
    Japanese Encephalitis, Australian Encephalitis,
    Dengue Fever
  • LaCrosse Encephalitis, California Encephalitis,
    Rift Valley Fever, Yellow Fever
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), Western
    Equine Encephalitis (WEE), Venezuelan Equine
  • Encephalitis (VEE), Tick-Borne Encephalitis,
    Colorado Tick Fever
  • OTHER CAUSES
  • Syphilis
  • Lyme Disease
  • Rabies

23
Encephalitis
VIRUS or BACTERIA
Type or Form?
MOSQUITOES, TICKS, ???
Possible vectors?
  • VECTOR CONTROL
  • SOME VACCINES AVAILABLE
  • USE OF TICK MOSQUITO REPELLENTS

Methods of prevention?
  • SOME VACCINES AVAILABLE
  • ANTIVIRAL DRUGS SOMETIMES WORK
  • SUPPORTIVE CARE
  • ANTIBIOTICS FOR BACTERIAL CAUSES
  • SOME HAVE NO CURE/TREATMENT

Available treatments?
24
Salmonella Food Poisoning
Salmonella sp.
Caused by the bacterial genus Salmonella.
Infection occurs by ingesting food products
contaminated with Salmonella bacteria. Symptoms
occur 12 to 72 after consuming contaminated food
and include vomiting and diarrhea. In children,
elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems
severity of the infection can cause death.
Contamination usually occurs or spreads during
food handling and preparation. The bacteria are
also commonly found on reptiles, amphibians,
rodents and birds.
Gram negative bacillus
25
Salmonella
BACTERIA
Type or Form?
NONE
Possible vectors?
  • SAFE FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
  • Wash hands after handing pet rodents, turtles,
    lizards, etc.

Methods of prevention?
  • SUPPORTIVE CARE
  • ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTI-DIARRHEALS
  • SHOULD NOT BE USED AS THEY INCREASE
  • THE RISK OF COMPLICATIONS

Available treatments?
26
Lyme Disease
Borreliosis
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria transmitted by
the deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms can
include chills and fever, headache, fatigue,
stiff neck, muscle and/or joint pain, and swollen
glands, and if left untreated, may include severe
fatigue, a stiff aching neck, and tingling or
numbness in the arms and legs, or facial
paralysis can occur. Over 77,000 cases have
been reported in NYS since Lyme disease became
reportable in 1986.
Young deer ticks, called nymphs, are active from
mid-May to mid-August and are about the size of
poppy seeds. Adult ticks, which are approximately
the size of sesame seeds, are most active from
March to mid-May and from mid-August to November.
Ticks can be active any time the temperature is
above freezing.
This is a bulls eye rash that is typical in many
cases.
27
Lyme Disease
BACTERIA
Type or Form?
DEER TICK (Ixodes scapularis)
Possible vectors?
  • TAKE PRECAUTIONS IN TICK AREAS
  • Wear light-colored clothing
  • Use insect repellent w/ DEET
  • Check your body for ticks
  • Know how to properly remove a tick if you are
    bitten
  • Remove the tick ASAP (36 hour rule)

Methods of prevention?
Available treatments?
Antibiotics may be used
28
(No Transcript)
29
LABORATORY ACTIVITY 2BACTERIAL GRAM STAIN
PROCEDURE
This procedure is done to help identify the
particular bacteria that has made a person ill.
You may want to conduct another activity here.
When this presentation was originally given, the
badge leader preformed a gram stain and read it
under a microscope. For more activity ideas,
visit the NYSDOH Public Health Works website
http//www.health.state.ny.us/prevention/public_he
alth_works/
30
SAFETY SECURITY RULES IN THE LABORATORY
  • NO FOOD OR DRINK IN LABORATORY AREAS
  • ABSOLUTELY NO HORSEPLAY
  • DO NOT TOUCH OR LEAN ON COUNTERTOPS OR
  • EQUIPMENT
  • STAY WITH THE GROUP AT ALL TIMES
  • NO SOUVENIRS
  • NO PHOTOGRAPHY WITHOUT PERMISSION
  • FOLLOW DIRECTIONS OF LABORATORY PERSONEL AT ALL
    TIMES
  • WASH YOUR HANDS WHEN LEAVING LABORATORIES

31
Gonorrhea
Bacteria
Type or Form?
  • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STD)
  • NO VECTORS

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • ABSTINENCE
  • SAFE SEX PRACTICES

Methods of prevention?
  • ANTIBIOTICS

Available treatments?
32
West Nile Disease
Virus
Type or Form?
Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
Mosquitoes transmit virus from birds
  • Eliminate stagnant water sources
  • Use insect repellent

Methods of prevention?
  • No disease treatment
  • Supportive care

Available treatments?
33
Botulism
Bacteria (toxin)
Type or Form?
  • Usually foodborne, can be wound related
  • NO VECTORS

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • Safe food handling
  • Proper wound care

Methods of prevention?
  • ANTITOXIN
  • SUPPORTIVE CARE
  • ANTIBIOTICS

Available treatments?
Medical use of toxin?
Botox is purified and diluted botulinum toxin.
People used to use castor oil as a laxative,
Castor oil comes from castor beans and contains
ricin in trace amounts which can cause
diarrhea/GI distress.
34
Influenza
Virus
Type or Form?
  • Person-to-person
  • Aerosol/Droplet
  • No vectors

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • Hand washing
  • Social distancing
  • Animal/Bird- to- person

Methods of prevention?
Available treatments?
  • Antiviral therapies
  • Every year in the United States, on average
  • 5 to 20 of the population gets the flu
  • more than 200,000 people are hospitalized from
    flu-related complications
  • about 36,000 people die from flu-related causes.

What about Pandemic Influenza?
The World Health Organization has declared a
pandemic (worldwide disease) in 2009 from the
novel H1N1 virus that has pig and bird components.
35
Syphilis
Bacteria
Type or Form?
  • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STD)
  • NO VECTORS

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • ABSTINENCE
  • SAFE SEX PRACTICES

Methods of prevention?
  • ANTIBIOTICS

Available treatments?
36
Liver infection can cause whites of eyes to
become yellow.
Hepatitis
Virus(es)
Type or Form?
  • BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN
  • FOODBORNE ILLNESS

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • BLOOD AND BODY FLUID PRECAUTIONS
  • PROPER FOOD HANDLING/ HYGIENE

Methods of prevention?
  • ANTIVIRAL THERAPIES
  • SUPPORTIVE CARE
  • SOMETIMES SELF-LIMITING

Available treatments?
37
Emphysema
Environmental
Type or Form?
  • CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO TOXIC CHEMICALS, NOTABLY
    LONG-TERM TOBACCO USE

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • NO/STOP SMOKING
  • Avoid second- hand smoke

Methods of prevention?
  • NO CURE
  • SUPPORTIVE/COMFORT CARE UNTIL DEATH
  • LUNG TRANSPLANTS

Available treatments?
38
Meningitis Inflammation of the lining of the
spinal cord or brain
Bacterial or Viral
Type or Form?
  • Person-to-Person
  • No vectors

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • Vaccination
  • Isolation/Quarantine

Methods of prevention?
  • Bacterial Antibiotics
  • Viral Usually self-limiting
  • Supportive care

Available treatments?
39
Herpes
Virus
Type or Form?
  • Person-to-Person
  • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STD)
  • Maternal-to-Infant
  • Primate- to- person

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
  • Avoidance
  • Safe Sex
  • Avoid contact with old-world primates

Methods of prevention?
  • NO CURE
  • ANTIVIRALS TO CONTROL OUTBREAKS

Available treatments?
40
Lead Poisoning
Lead Paint
Environmental
Type or Form?
  • Environmental exposure
  • (usually ingestion by infants/toddlers)

Mode of Transmission / Possible vectors?
Lead Shot
  • Identification of at risk persons
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Abatement

Methods of prevention?
  • Chelation Therapy

Available treatments?
41
Switching Gears
42
IMMUNIZATIONS
Immunization is the process by which an
individual's immune system becomes trained to
protect a person from a disease agent.
NATURAL vs. ARTIFICIAL IMMUNIZATION
ACTIVE vs. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION
VACCINATION
43
RECOMMENDED CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENT IMMUNIZATION
SCHEDULE (Advisory Committee on Immunization
Practices (ACIP))
2009
Recommended recurring vaccinations for adults
include INFLUENZA (annually) and TETANUS every 10
years)
44
DISEASES FOR WHICH THERE IS CURRENTLY NO
VACCINATION
  • Food Poisonings (E. coli, Salmonella, others)
  • AIDS
  • Encephalitis (Some vaccines in development or
    available outside of the U.S.)
  • Gonorrhea
  • West Nile Virus (available for animals, human
    trials in progress)
  • Botulism (In development/Experimental)
  • Syphilis
  • Emphysema
  • Lead Poisoning

45
Leave No Trace
By washing dishes in waterways you are releasing
chemicals (soap, phosphorus) and food debris into
the water. Also, the water may contain
micro-organisms which you might ingest if you
used wet dishes from the water source.
46
Daily indoor per capita water use in a typical
single family home is gallons!
70
Here is how it breaks down.
Use Gallons per Capita Percentage of Total Daily Use
Showers 11.6 16.8
Clothes Washers 15.0 21.7
Dishwashers 1.0 1.4
Toilets 18.5 26.7
Baths 1.2 1.7
Leaks 9.5 13.7
Faucets 10.9 15.7
Other Domestic Uses 1.6 2.2
Visit this site to calculate your water
consumption! http//www.csgnetwork.com/waterusagec
alc.html
47
A VIRTUAL TOUR OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY
http//www.rewaonline.org/treatment-process.php
48
LABORATORY ACTIVITY 3Water Quality Analysis
TURBIDITY pH Dissolved O2
You may want to conduct an activity here. When
this presentation was originally given, the badge
leader performed some basic water quality
analyses including pH, dissolved oxygen, and
turbidity. Ideas for other activities can be
found on the NYSDOH Public Health Works! Website
http//www.health.state.ny.us/prevention/public_he
alth_works/ and www.worldwatermonitoringday.org.
Please contact your local health department or
consult a text book or the internet for help in
completing this lab.
49
DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AND SOLID WASTE IN WILDERNESS
CAMPING ENVIRONMENTS
Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsite
and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack
out all trash, leftover food, and litter.
Deposit solid human waste in holes dug 6 to 8
inches deep at least 200 feet from water, camp,
and trails. Cover and disguise the hole when
finished. Pack out toilet paper and hygiene
products.
To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200
feet away from streams or lakes and use small
amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained
dishwater.
50
MAKING WATER SAFE TO DRINK WHILE CAMPING
Follow directions for safety. Ineffective against
some agents.
Common agents of concern found in water Bacteria
E. coli, Salmonella Protozoa Giardia,
Cryptosporidium Chemical Heavy metals, Organic
compounds, Pesticides
51
FOOD SAFETY
When this presentation was originally given, the
badge leader showed 2 short videos on food
safety. You may want to look for similar videos
or other activities related to food safety.
FOOD SAFETY VIDEO 2
FOOD SAFETY VIDEO 1
52
FOOD SAFETY WHILE CAMPING
  • KEEP PERISHABLE FOODS STORED AT TEMPERATURES
    BELOW 40oF.
  • DO NOT ALLOW FOODS TO SIT AT TEMPERATURES BETWEEN
    40oF AND 140oF FOR MORE THAN 2 HOURS.
  • ALWAYS THOUROUGHLY WASH HANDS BEFORE DOING ANY
    FOOD PREPARATION OR COOKING.
  • DO NOT PREPARE/COOK FOOD ON THE GROUND, USE A
    TABLE OR GROUNDCLOTH.
  • PLAN PORTIONS CAFEFULLY TO AVOID HAVING TO STORE
    LEFTOVERS.
  • MAKE SURE COOKING UTENSILS AND MESS KITS ARE
    PROPERLY CLEANED AFTER USE.
  • AVOID USING THE SAME UTENSILS FOR MEATS AND OTHER
    FOODS THAT WONT BE COOKED, OR SANITIZE BETWEEN
    USES.

53
PROPER CLEANING OF COOKING TOOLS MESS KITS
1. Use a rag or 1 piece of paper towel to wipe
all leftover food scraps from utensils.
5. Rinse all pans out with the water from the
SANITIZE PAN and allow all dishes and pans to
air-dry in a clean location.
54
HOW NOT TO WASH DISHES AT CAMP
55
A FINAL THOUGHT ON FOODBORNE ILLNESS
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) estimate that every year in the United
States.. 76 Million people suffer from foodborne
illness 325,000 people must be hospitalized due
to foodborne illness 5,000 people die due to
complications from foodborne illness Most of
these illnesses and deaths could be prevented by
hand washing!
56
And in case you havent picked up on the message
57
POLLUTION PUBLIC HEALTH
www.epa.gov www.health.state.ny.us
58
LEADING CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN NYS
Total Population
2006 Heart Disease Cancer CLRD Stroke Accidents
2005 Heart Disease Cancer CLRD Stroke Accidents
2004 Heart Disease Cancer CLRD Stroke Accidents
2007 Heart Disease (26,081 cases) Cancer
(20,833) CLRD (4,835) Stroke (3,889) Accidents
(2,912)
2003 Heart Disease Cancer CLRD Stroke Accidents
10- 19 Age Group
2003 Accidents Suicide Cancer Heart
Disease Homicide
2004 Accidents Suicide Cancer Homicide Heart
Disease
2005 Accidents Cancer Suicide Heart
Disease Congenital
2006 Accidents Homicide Suicide Cancer Heart
Disease
2007 Accidents (162 cases) Suicide (32) Cancer
(31) Homicide (13) Heart Disease (12)
YOUR THOUGHTS?
59
2008 REPORTABLE DISEASE TOTALS ERIE COUNTY
CHLAMYDIA 4350 GONORRHEA 2026 INFLUENZA
233 GIARDIASIS - 123 ASEPTIC MENINGITIS 122 HIV
119 INVASIVE STREP PNUEMO 116 SALMONELLOSIS -
102
SO, HOW DOES THIS RELATE TO STATE MORTALITY
TOTALS?
60
Enter the name of your county health department
here.
Provide a graphical representation of the
organizational structure of the department here
to aid in the explanation of its functions.
61
Enter the name of any laboratories, environmental
health program and/or epidemiological program of
your county health department here.
Provide a graphic of the organizational structure
of this department here.
62
Careers in Public Health
Epidemiologists
Scientists
Clinicians
Administrators
Sanitarians
IT Specialists
Educators
63
Provide contact information here for someone who
can respond to questions and answers.
64
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! PLEASE CLEAN UP
AROUND YOU BEFORE YOU LEAVE! MAKE SURE YOU GET
YOUR SIGNED BLUE CARD BACK BEFORE YOU LEAVE!
65
Acknowledgements
Michael Simkins, Erie County Public Health
Laboratories Erie County Department of Health Dr.
Millicent Eidson, New York State Department of
Health New York State Department of Health,
Office of Public Health Practice
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